First, authentication. This is the process of verifying the validity of something; in our case, user credentials/identity. The most common way to authenticate is: USERNAME and PASSWORD. This is just a single layer (single-factor authentication) and isn’t enough to discourage attackers.
Second, 2FA (Two-factor Authentication). 2FA increases the difficulty for attackers by providing users an additional layer of security to accomplish authentication. Common 2FA methods are: TOTP/OTP (the One Time Password), Authenticator Applications (Bitwarden, KeePassXC,...), and Security Keys (Yubikey). This works similar to ATMs; to authenticate the user must provide both knowledge (account PIN) and a physical object (bank card).
Last, but not least, MFA (Multifactor Authentication). Similar to 2FA, MFA offers users security with the addition of biometrics (fingerprint scan, retina scan, facial recognition, and voice recognition). Attackers must overcome the knowledge factor, Possession factor, Inherence/Biometric factor, Time factor, and sometimes Location factor.
MORE helpful security information.
2FA/MFA Known Attacks.
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